OK so for one, JPOC are obviously not white. So I’m going to answer the question as if you asked if “white-skinned” Jews are white.
Jews are at a weird intersection of occasionally getting white privilege and being considered interlopers, at least in the U.S.
I’ve been told that I’m white and also that I’m not white because I’m Jewish, it really depends on who I’m with and how Jewish I act. If I speak in Yiddish or Hebrew, wear a Magen David, or otherwise reference my Jewishness then I open myself to potential antisemitic violence, aggression, isolation, etc.
I would say that Jews have more ability to assimilate than some groups, but I’m hesitant to call it a privilege. It’s more of an expectation, and from what I’ve seen it exists towards both white Jews and JPOC.
For intra-Jewish discussions, I’m definitely white.
For larger discussions of white supremacy, it depends on who I’m with. In contexts of POC, I’m pretty fucking white. In context of white people, not if I act Jewish. I have the ability to assimilate, but I’m expected to do this. It’s not just a, “Well it’s convenient for me to be Jewish” because if I participate in Jewish culture, I am Jewish. I really don’t have any other frame of reference, so usually when I pretend to be a “standard” deist or atheist I end up giving it away. (Because believe it or not these people are still influenced by Christianity, go figure. Could just be because I’m a shitty liar.)
Antisemitism operates on multiple axises though. All Jews are affected by antisemitism, and the discussion of whether or not Jews can be white doesn’t really help discussions of antisemitism. For shorthand, it’s easier to label Jews as non-white. Some Jews may consider themselves white due to their appearance, their experiences or lackthereof, or sometimes because they consider antisemitism to be separate from discussions of white supremacy. But gentiles should not be the ones who bring this discussion on, because it involves invalidating the experiences of Jewish people.
Some forms of antisemitism are racism, plain and simple. “You don’t look Jewish” or “You can’t be Jewish because you look like you’re X/Y/Z” are raciallization. Blood Libel, Judensau, and other antisemitic characterizations exist near globally at this point, and they are all forms of raciallization. Jews suffer racialized violence because of these characterizations, even in the U.S.
Accusations of Jewish people being puppetmasters, controlling media, exaggerating our suffering or complaining too much about it are similar, but it doesn’t really exist in other racial groups - and when it does it is not as prevalent. This is unique to antisemitism. It is a tactic that only serves white supremacists, because it isolates Jews from larger discussions and places us as “true enemies” of both whites AND gentile POC.
When Jews are viewed as inherently oppressive, we are targeted instead of white supremacy.
It is possible for Jewish people to play into white supremacy, but this is an intra-discussion. Goyim should not be commenting on the ability of Jewish people in particular to assimilate, regardless of their race. There are JPOC on this site who are better qualified than they are to speak on those issues.
This doesn’t mean that Jewish people are immune to criticism, just that criticism of Jewish people by virtue of their Jewishness is antisemitic.
Short answer: This entire thing is an intra-discussion, it’s complicated, it depends on whether or not a Jewish person even looks white enough to pass, how Jewish they act, their last name, their mother’s maiden name, their first name, and a bunch of other factors.
Based on my own personal experience I’ve mostly been coded as non-white once I reveal myself as Jewish, both by white people and by non-white people. Even though I have light skin and blue eyes. (EX: I’ve had friends’ parents switch from referring to me as “white girl” to “Jewish girl” and in some cases “Jewess” which is usually translated from a slur.)